Modernization of Police Forces in Indian states

admin_2 - April 8, 2010 5 Comments

By Rohit & Anirudh A modified 'Modernization of State Police Forces' scheme was started by the central government in 2000-01. One of the objectives was to help police forces in meeting the emerging challenges to internal security in the form of terrorism, naxalism etc. The scheme aims to modernize police forces in terms of:

  • Mobility (including purchase of bullet proof and mine proof vehicles)
  • Weaponry
  • Communication Systems
  • Training
  • Forensic Science Laboratory/ Finger Printing Bureau
  • Equipments
  • Buildings

Under this scheme, States have been clubbed into different categories and Centre-State cost sharing is category specific. Since 2005-06, States have been categorized as category ‘A’ and ‘B’ with 100% and 75% Central funding respectively. All the North Eastern States, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim have been placed in category ‘A’ and thus, are entitled to receive 100% Central assistance for implementation of their annual approved plans. Recently, CAG decided to evaluate the working of the scheme and commissioned ‘performance audit’ reviews covering select general category and special category States. Each review covers a contiguous five year period between 2000 and 2007, but varies across selected states. For the periods under review, each state had a plan outlay (the total amount proposed to be spent in modernizing the state's police forces). However, in most cases, the actual release of funds fell significantly short of this outlay - in some cases the Centre did not contribute its share, in others the States lagged behind. For instance, in the case of Bihar, the Centre released only 56% of its share; while in the case of Rajasthan and West Bengal, the States did not release any funds at all. The graph below shows the actual releases by the Centre and the States (as percentages of their share in the proposed outlays): Further, even the funds that were released were not fully utilized. Thus, the amount finally spent fell significantly short of the initial proposal. The graph below shows the actual expenditure by State: Following are some of the other main findings from the CAG report:

Table 1: Summary of main findings in the CAG audit for different states for Modernisation of State Police Forces

Purpose for which money was sanctioned

Summary of CAG Findings

Planning

(Every state has to propose an Annual Action Plan every year. The plan is approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs and money is released as per the plan.)

§

Submissions by the states to the MHA were delayed.

§

There were also delays in the clearance granted by the MHA.

§

In various states such as,

a)

Andhra Pradesh – the government spent money on works not covered by the Annual Action Plan.

b)

Bihar – Persistent delays in preparation of the Plan by the state police.

c)

West Bengal – the plans drawn up by the state did not include items covered under the scheme.

Mobility

§

Overall shortage of vehicles was observed. Most of the new vehicles replaced the old ones.

§

The police response time was too long in some states.

§

To give examples from some states:

a)

Andhra Pradesh – 58 percent of vehicles procured were utilised for replacing old vehicles.

b)

Bihar – the shortage of vehicles was 43 percent.

c)

Uttar Pradesh – 2400 vehicles were procured against a shortage of nearly 10,000 vehicles.

Residential and non-residential buildings

§

There were considerable delays in construction of buildings in most states. Consequently, police forces’ own security was in jeopardy.

§

In states such as:

a)

Andhra Pradesh – 53 percent of staff quarters and 43 percent of official buildings were not completed (2007).

b)

Bihar – The total requirement of housing was nearly 60,000. Only six percent of this were included in the Plan.

c)

Jharkhand – District Control rooms remained non-functional because of shortage of manpower.

Weapons

§ Police force in states continue to depend on outdated weapons.

§

Shortages of weapons also happened as acquisition from ordnance factories was very slow.

§

The weapons that were procured were mostly kept in the district headquarters.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Bihar – AK-47s were kept at the disposal of bodyguards of VIPs.

b)

West Bengal – Adequate weapons were not supplied to extremist prone police stations.

Communication

§

Police Telecommunication Networks were not set up successfully in some states. In others, network was functional only up to the district level.

§

Shortages of various communication equipments were also observed.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Bihar - The Police Telecommunication Network system (costing Rs. 4.96 crore) remained non-functional due to non-construction of tower.

b)

Maharashtra – Of the 850 purchased Remote Station Units, 452 were lying in stores.

Forensic Science Laboratory/ Finger Printing Bureau

§

In most States the Forensic Science Laboratories lacked adequate infrastructure.

§

In the absence of automatic finger print identification systems, investigation was being done manually in some States.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Maharashtra - There were significant delays in receipt and installation. There was also shortage (284 vacant posts) of technical manpower.

b)

West Bengal - Performance of the Forensic Science Laboratory was poor and in some cases, the delay in issue of investigation reports was as high as 45 months.

Training

§

It was observed that the percentage of police personnel trained was very low.

§

Training infrastructure was also inadequate.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Bihar - Only 10 per cent of total force was trained.

b)

West Bengal - Live training was not imparted for handling useful weapons and this severely affected the performance of police forces.

Sources: CAG Compendium of Performance Audit Reviews on Modernisation of Police Force; PRS.

Note: The audit has been done broadly from 2000 to 2007. Consequently, the period of audit for different states may vary.

Table 1: Summary of main findings in the CAG audit for different states for Modernisation of State Police Forces

Purpose for which money was sanctioned

Summary of CAG Findings

Planning

(Every state has to propose an Annual Action Plan every year. The plan is approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs and money is released as per the plan.)

§

Submissions by the states to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) were delayed.

§

There were also delays in the clearance granted by the MHA.

§

In various states such as,

a)

Andhra Pradesh – the government spent Rs 32 crore on works not covered by the Annual Action Plan.

b)

Bihar – Persistent delays in preparation of the Plan by the state police.

c)

West Bengal – the plans drawn up by the state did not include items covered under the scheme.

Mobility

§

Overall shortage of vehicles was observed. Most of the new vehicles replaced the old ones, and no additions were made.

§

The police response time was too long in some states.

§

To give examples from some states:

a)

Andhra Pradesh – 58 percent of vehicles procured were utilised for replacing old vehicles.

b)

Bihar – the shortage of vehicles was 43 percent.

c)

Uttar Pradesh – 2400 vehicles were procured against a shortage of nearly 10,000 vehicles. 203 ambassador cars were procured, though only 55 were approved by the MHA.

Residential and non-residential buildings

§

There were considerable delays in construction of buildings in most states. Consequently, police forces’ own security was in jeopardy. Satisfaction levels with the housing provided were also very low.

§

In states such as:

a)

Andhra Pradesh – 53 percent of staff quarters and 43 percent of official buildings were not completed (2007).

b)

Bihar – The total requirement of housing was nearly 60,000. Only six percent of this were included in the Plan, and only 1045 units were completed by 2006.

c)

Jharkhand – District Control rooms remained non-functional even after spending Rs 2 crore because of shortage of manpower.

Weapons

§

It was observed that the police force in states continue to depend on outdated weapons.

§

Shortages of weapons also happened as acquisition from ordnance factories was very slow.

§

The weapons that were procured were mostly kept in the district headquarters.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Bihar – AK-47s were kept at the disposal of bodyguards of VIPs.

b)

West Bengal – Adequate weapons were not supplied to extremist prone police stations.

Communication

§

Police Telecommunication Networks were not set up successfully in some states. In others, network was functional only up to the district level.

§

Shortages of various communication equipments were also observed.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Bihar - The Police Telecommunication Network system (costing Rs. 4.96 crore) remained non-functional due to non-construction of tower.

b)

Maharashtra – Of the 850 purchased Remote Station Units, 452 were lying in stores.

Forensic Science Laboratory/ Finger Printing Bureau

§

In most States the Forensic Science Laboratories lacked adequate infrastructure.

§

In the absence of automatic finger print identification systems, investigation was being done manually in some States.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Maharashtra - There were significant delays in receipt and installation. There was also shortage (284 vacant posts) of technical manpower.

b)

West Bengal - Performance of the Forensic Science Laboratory was poor and in some cases, the delay in issue of investigation reports was as high as 45 months.

Training

§

It was observed that the percentage of police personnel trained was very low.

§

Training infrastructure was also inadequate.

§

In some states such as,

a)

Bihar - Only 10 per cent of total force was trained.

b)

West Bengal - Live training was not imparted for handling useful weapons and this severely affected the performance of police forces.

Sources: CAG Compendium of Performance Audit Reviews on Modernisation of Police Force; PRS.

Note: The audit has been done broadly from 2000 to 2007. Consequently, the period of audit for different states may vary.

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Women’s Day and Reservation: Status of women in India

admin_2 - March 8, 2010

 

By Kaushiki Sanyal

On March 8, the 100th anniversary of the International Women’s Day, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) intends to debate and put to vote a Bill which has been hanging fire in Parliament since May 6, 2008.  Introduced in the Rajya Sabha, the  controversial Bill seeks to reserve 33% seats for women in the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies.  The Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice to which the Bill was referred submitted its report on December 17, 2009.  Various political parties, academics and activists have argued the pros and cons of the Bill threadbare. Some of these arguments have been laid down in our analysis of the Bill.

Whether reservation for women in Parliament is the right tool for empowerment may be debatable, it is certainly true that women of this country have a long way to go before they can achieve their potential.  They are hampered by low levels of education, lack of access to health care, lack of employment, and low social status which manifests in crimes such as female foeticide, dowry deaths and domestic violence.  We highlight some socio-economic and political indicators related to women in the following graphs.

 

 

Percentage of women MPs from 1st to 15th Lok Sabha

clip_image002

§ Women constitute 11% of the newly elected House.

§ Of the larger states Madhya Pradesh has the highest percentage of women MPs (21%), followed by West Bengal (17%) and Uttar Pradesh (15%).

 

 

 

 

Females married before age 18

clip_image006

§ In India the legal age for marriage is 18 years for females and 21 years for males. However about 44 percent of females, and 37 percent of males are married before the legal age.

§ There are areas in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Bihar where the average female age at marriage continues to be below 16 years.

 

 

 

Literacy rate of women

clip_image008

§ Census 2001 reveals that 54.2% women are literate.

§ The NSSO data shows huge disparity between urban and rural population. About 64% of rural males and 45% rural females were literate. The literacy rates among their urban counterparts were much higher at 81% and 69% respectively.

 

 

Incidents of crimes against women

Crimes

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Rape (IPC)

15,847

18,233

18,359

19,348

20,737

Dowry Death (IPC)

6208

7026

6787

7618

8093

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

2684

3592

3204

4504

5623

Kidnapping & Abduction (Sec 363 to 373 IPC)

13,296

15,578

15,750

17,414

20,416

Torture (IPC 498A)

50,703

58,121

58,319

63,128

75,930

Molestation (Sec 354 IPC)

32,939

34,567

34,175

36,617

38,734

Sexual harassment (Sec 509 IPC)

12,325

10,001

9984

9966

10,950

Importation of Girls (Sec. 366-B IPC)

46

89

149

67

61

Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

5510

5748

5908

4541

3568

Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986

1043

1378

2917

1562

1200

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