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Money Bills vs. Other Bills

December 22nd, 2015 1 comment

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2015 was introduced in Lok Sabha yesterday, as a Money Bill [Clarification: This is as per news reports.*  The text of the Bill does not indicate that it is a Money Bill].  In this context, we briefly outline the various types of Bills in Parliament, and highlight the key differences between Money Bills and Financial Bills.

What are the different types of Bills?

There are four types of Bills, namely (i) Constitution Amendment Bills; (ii) Money Bills; (iii) Financial Bills; and (iv) Ordinary Bills.

What are the features of each of these Bills?

  • Constitution Amendment Bills[i]: These are Bills which seek to amend the Constitution.
  • Money Bills[ii]: A Bill is said to be a Money Bill if it only contains provisions related to taxation, borrowing of money by the government, expenditure from or receipt to the Consolidated Fund of India. Bills that only contain provisions that are incidental to these matters would also be regarded as Money Bills.[iii]
  • Financial Bills[iv]: A Bill that contains some provisions related to taxation and expenditure, and additionally contains provisions related to any other matter is called a Financial Bill. Therefore, if a Bill merely involves expenditure by the government, and addresses other issues, it will be a financial bill.
  • Ordinary Bills[v]: All other Bills are called ordinary bills.

How are these bills passed?

  • Constitution Amendment Bills1: A Constitution Amendment Bill must be passed by both Houses of Parliament. It would require a simple majority of the total membership of that House, and a two thirds majority of all members present and voting.  Further, if the Bill relates to matters like the election of the President and Governor, executive and legislative powers of the centre and states, the judiciary, etc., it must be ratified by at least half of the state legislatures.
  • Money Bills[vi]: A Money Bill may only be introduced in Lok Sabha, on the recommendation of the President. It must be passed in Lok Sabha by a simple majority of all members present and voting.  Following this, it may be sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations, which Lok Sabha may reject if it chooses to.  If such recommendations are not given within 14 days, it will deemed to be passed by Parliament.
  • Financial Bills4: A Financial Bill may only be introduced in Lok Sabha, on the recommendation of the President. The Bill must be passed by both Houses of Parliament, after the President has recommended that it be taken up for consideration in each House.
  • Ordinary Bills5: An Ordinary Bill may be introduced in either House of Parliament. It must be passed by both Houses by a simple majority of all members present and voting.

How is a Money Bill different from a financial bill?

While all Money Bills are Financial Bills, all Financial Bills are not Money Bills.  For example, the Finance Bill which only contains provisions related to tax proposals would be a Money Bill.  However, a Bill that contains some provisions related to taxation or expenditure, but also covers other matters would be considered as a Financial Bill.  The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2015, which establishes funds under the Public Account of India and states, was introduced as a Financial Bill.[vii]

Secondly, as highlighted above, the procedure for the passage of the two bills varies significantly.  The Rajya Sabha has no power to reject or amend a Money Bill.  However, a Financial Bill must be passed by both Houses of Parliament.

Who decides if a Bill is a Money Bill?

The Speaker certifies a Bill as a Money Bill, and the Speaker’s decision is final.[viii]  Also, the Constitution states that parliamentary proceedings as well as officers responsible for the conduct of business (such as the Speaker) may not be questioned by any Court.[ix]


 

[i]. Article 368, Constitution of India.

[ii]. Article 110, Constitution of India.

[iii]. Article 110 (1), Constitution of India.

[iv]. Article 117, Constitution of India.

[v]. Article 107, Constitution of India.

[vi]. Article 109, Constitution of India.

[vii]. The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2015, introduced in Lok Sabha on May 8, 2015, http://www.prsindia.org/billtrack/the-compensatory-afforestations-fund-bill-2015-3782/.

[viii]. Article 110 (3), Constitution of India.

[ix]. Article 122, Constitution of India.

[*Note: See Economic Times, Financial Express, The Hindu Business LineNDTV ,etc.]

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The Juvenile Justice Bill, 2015: All you need to know

December 18th, 2015 6 comments

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2015 is currently pending in Rajya Sabha and was listed for passage in the current Winter session of Parliament.  The Bill was passed by Lok Sabha after incorporating certain amendments, in May 2015.  Here is all you need to know about the Bill and key issues associated with it.  A PRS analysis of the statistics on incidence of crimes by children and conviction rates is available here.

Table 1: Juveniles between 16-18 years apprehended under IPC
Crime

2003

2013

Burglary

1,160

2,117

Rape

293

1,388

Kidnapping/abduction

156

933

Robbery

165

880

Murder

328

845

Other offences

11,839

19,641

Total

13,941

25,804

Note: Other offences include cheating, rioting, etc.  Sources: Juveniles in conflict with law, Crime in India 2013, National Crime Records Bureau; PRS.

Who is a juvenile as recognised by law?

In the Indian context, a juvenile or child is any person who is below the age of 18 years.  However, the Indian Penal Code specifies that a child cannot be charged for any crime until he has attained seven years of age.

Why is there a need for a new Bill when a juvenile justice law already exists?

The government introduced the Juvenile Justice Bill in August 2014 in Lok Sabha and gave various reasons to justify the need for a new law.  It said that the existing Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 was facing implementation issues and procedural delays with regard to adoption, etc.  Additionally, the government cited National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data to say that there has been an increase in crimes committed by juveniles, especially by those in the 16-18 years age group.

NCRB data shows that the percentage of juvenile crimes, when seen in proportion to total crimes, has increased from 1% in 2003 to 1.2% in 2013.  During the same period, 16-18 year olds accused of crimes as a percentage of all juveniles accused of crimes increased from 54% to 66%.  However, the type of crimes committed by 16-18 year olds can be seen in table 1.

What is the new Bill doing?

Currently, the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 provides the framework to deal with children who are in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection.  The Bill seeks to replace the existing 2000 Act and lays down the procedures to deal with both categories of children.  It highlights the two main bodies that will deal with these children, to be set up in each district: Juvenile Justice Boards (JJBs) and Child Welfare Committees (CWCs).  It provides details regarding adoption processes and penalties applicable under the law.  The Bill provides for children between 16-18 years to be tried as adults for heinous crimes.  The three types of offences defined by the Bill are: (i) a heinous offence is an offence that attracts a minimum penalty of seven years imprisonment under any existing law, (ii) a serious offence is one that gets imprisonment between three to seven years and, (iii) a petty offence is penalized with up to three years imprisonment.

Currently, how is a juvenile in conflict with law treated? How is that set to change?

Under the 2000 Act, any child in conflict with law, regardless of the type of offence committed, may spend a maximum of three years in institutional care (special home, etc.)  The child cannot be given any penalty higher than three years, nor be tried as an adult and be sent to an adult jail.  The proposed Bill treats all children under the age of 18 years in a similar way, except for one departure.  It states that any 16-18 year old who commits a heinous offence may be tried as an adult.  The JJB shall assess the child’s mental and physical capacity, ability to understand consequences of the offence, etc.  On the basis of this assessment, a Children’s Court will determine whether the child is fit to be tried as an adult.

What did the Standing Committee examining the Bill observe?

One of the reasons cited for the introduction of the Bill is a spike in juvenile crime, as depicted by NCRB data.  The Standing Committee on Human Resource Development examining the Bill stated that NCRB data was misleading as it was based on FIRs and not actual convictions.  It also observed that the Bill violates some constitutional provisions and said that the approach towards juvenile offenders should be reformative and rehabilitative.

The Bill as introduced posed certain constitutional violations to Article 14, 20(1) and 21.  These have been addressed by deletion of the relevant clause, at the time of passing the Bill in Lok Sabha.

What does the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) say? What are the obligations on the signatory nations?

The UNCRC was ratified by India in 1992 and the 2000 Act was consequently brought in to adhere to the standards set by the Convention.  The proposed Bill maintains this aim and seeks to improve implementation and procedural delays experienced by the 2000 Act.  The UNCRC states that signatory countries should treat every child under the age of 18 years in the same manner and not try them as adults.  While the 2000 Act complies with this requirement, the Bill does not.  However, many other countries who have also ratified the Convention try juveniles as adults, in case of certain crimes.  These countries include the UK, France, Germany, etc.  The United States is not a signatory to the UNCRC and also treats juveniles as adults in case of certain crimes.

Under the Bill, what happens to a child who is found to be orphaned, abandoned or surrendered?

The Bill addresses children in need of care and protection.  When a child is found to be orphaned, abandoned or surrendered he is brought before a Child Welfare Committee within 24 hours.  A social investigation report is conducted for the child, and the Committee decides to either send the child to a children’s home or any other facility it deems fit, or to declare the child to be free for adoption or foster care.  The Bill outlines the eligibility criteria for prospective parents.  It also details procedures for adoption, and introduces a provision for inter-country adoption, so that prospective parents living outside the country can adopt a child in India.

Currently, the Guidelines Governing Adoption, 2015 under the 2000 Act, regulates adoptions.  Model Foster Care Guidelines have also recently been released by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

What are the penalties for committing offences against children?

Various penalties for committing offences against children are laid out in the Bill.  These include penalties for giving a child an intoxicating substance, selling or buying the child, cruelty against a child, etc.

Issue to consider: The penalty for giving a child an intoxicating or narcotic substance is an imprisonment of seven years and a fine of up to one lakh rupees.  Comparatively, buying or selling a child will attract a penalty including imprisonment of five years and a fine of one lakh rupees.

It remains to be seen if the Bill will be taken up for consideration in this session, and if its passage will address the issues surrounding children in conflict with the law.

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